In medical research and social science, a cross sectional study also known as a cross sectional analysis, transversal study, prevalence study is a type of observational study. If incidence is our real interest, as it generally is for etiologic research, prevalence may not be a good surrogate. Cross sectional studies are simpler and less costly than longitudinal studies. Cohort, cross sectional, and casecontrol studies are collectively referred to as observational studies. Study designs based on the nature of the investigation other designs commonly used in quantitative research the cross over comparative experimental design the replicated cross sectional design trend studies cohort studies panel studies blind studies doubleblind studies study designs in qualitative research case study oral history focus groups. Crosssectional design definition of crosssectional design. A sample size of 402 in the smallest group is sufficient to produce a twosided 95% exact confidence interval. Research design a research design is a set of logical procedures that when followed enables one to obtain evidence to determine the degree to which a theoretical hypothesis or set of hypotheses isare correct. Crosssectional studies can be helpful in determining how many people are affected by. Crosssectional studies are extensively used to measure the prevalence of.
In open education sociology dictionary, edited by kenton bell. What can repeated crosssectional studies tell us about. Moreover, our results showed that having social support of any form could mitigate some of the negative impacts of relative deprivation on health. A cross sectional study is a type of observational research that analyzes data of variables collected at one given point in time across a sample population or a predefined subset. Epidemiologic study designs johns hopkins hospital. A crosssectional study of selfreported work conditions and. This design enabled the researcher to observe two or more variables at. The usual purposes of conducting power analyses are a to estimate the minimum sample size needed in a proposed study to detect an effect of a certain magnitude at a given level of statistical power, or b to determine the level of. A crosssectional study reports the status or stage of a disease, looks for reasons or explanations, and examines. In particular, when the data collection strategy is broader in scope involves considerably more than one case or a small group and involves systematic data collection we use the term cross sectional instead of case study to. Synonyms used for cross sectional include prevalence and diseasefrequency studies. In a crosssectional study we can calculate the prevalence of disease and. List of the advantages of a cross sectional study 1. This work is licensed under a creative commons attribution.
Usually there is no hypothesis as such, but the aim is to describe a population. For example, data in a cross sectional research study might be collected from males and females, from people in different socioeconomic status, from multiple age groups, and from people with different abilities and accomplishments. Crosssectional study how is crosssectional study abbreviated. Cross sectional study, cross sectional study a cross sectional study is the simplest variety of descriptive or observational epidemiology that can be conducted on represent cohort, cohort, cohort analysis the term cohort originally referred to a roman military unit, but it is now used to identify any group of people with a time multivariate analysis, multivariate analysis univariate. The purpose of the study is descriptive, often in the form of a survey. Crosssectional study definition of crosssectional study. In a cross sectional study, all in a given population or a random sample from this population define the source population. Cross sectional study an overview sciencedirect topics. A crosssectional correlation research design was used for this study where the caregivers compassion fatigue levels were assessed in relation to their sense of coherence scores. This design enabled the researcher to observe two or more variables at the point in time and was useful for describing a relationship between two or more. They may also be constructed from register data, an approach that is common in some countries. In medical research, social science and biology, a crosssectional study also known as a crosssectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in timethat is, crosssectional data.
Panel studies can also use qualitative methods for the data collection and analysis. Often these studies are the only practicable method of studying various problems, for example, studies of aetiology, instances where a randomised controlled trial might be unethical, or if the condition to be studied is rare. Mar 24, 2006 a cross sectional study design is used when. A close ended questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 115 dentist and 115 patients consisting of 10 sets of. In cross sectional designs, researchers record information but do not manipulate variables. Often described as a snapshot of a population in a. Crosssectional study definition psychology glossary. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. Crosssectional study an overview sciencedirect topics. Cross sectional design is based on observations made at one point in time. Crosssectional research is often used to study what is happening in a group at a particular time. Hence, the research design used for this research work is exploratory research for identification of variables followed by descriptive research design single cross sectional design for sampling and data collection. Examples of crosssectional surveys include the american community survey, the decennial census long form, and many political and opinion. For example a random sample of schools across london may be used to assess the burden or prevalence of asthma among 1214 year olds.
Cross sectional surveys are based on a sample of the population of interest drawn at one time point. Relative deprivation, poverty, and subjective health. Cross sectional study design is a type of observational study design. Crosssectional surveys have been described as snapshots of the populations about which they gather data. Crosssectional surveys may be repeated periodically. Crosssectional studies examine the relationship between diseases or other healthrelated characteristics and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a particular point in time last 2001. After we identify people in the study, we then determine exposure and disease at essentially the. A study that examines the relationship between diseases or other healthrelated characteristics and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a single point in time. The reason why it is known as the crosssectional study design is due to the information regarding x. They could be defined as studies taking a snapshot of a society. In this type of study, researchers observe at one point in time. In this series, i previous ly gave an overview of the main types of.
A common example of crosssectional design is a census study in which a population is surveyed at one point in time in order to describe characteristics of that population including age, sex, and geographic location, among other characteristics. Cross sectional designs are sampled groups taken and examined from the continuum to determine if there is a difference between different sections of the continuum. Finally, similar to a preceding study using cross sectional data from 5,624 women aged 2059, our data confirmed that relative deprivation was associated with the absence of social support. This post provides one example of a longitudinal study and explores some the strengths and limitations of this research method. Crosssectional studies article about crosssectional. First, cross sectional studies provide data on prevalence, not incidence. Thelle, petter laake, in research in medical and biological sciences second edition, 2015. Cons cross sectional studies may lead to erroneous conclusions as to a temporal sequence of cause and effect. A cross sectional study can help to reveal relationships and nonrelationships among variables that describe a sample. Definition an analytic investigation in which subjects are sampled at a fixed point or period of time, and then the association between the concurrent presence or absence of risk factors and diseases are investigated. Several studies have demonstrated that immigrants in scandinavian countries. Survey is an extensive cross sectional approach, where a number of cases are considered at a particular time and the data is gathered to study the opinions, behavior, attitudes, habits, desires, values and beliefs etc. Power analysis for crosssectional and longitudinal study designs.
Crosssectional and longitudinal designs department of. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of violence against pregnant women study populationbased, household, cross sectional study in mbeya and dar es salaam, tanzania, 20012002. Crosssectional studies are often used in developmental psychology, but this method is also utilized in many other areas including social science and education. As is frequently the case in epidemiology, studies may use mixed designs. The statistical analysis of crosssectional studies depends on their hybrid design, and. The data are typically collected from multiple groups or types of people in cross sectional research. In reading public health research, you may encounter many terms that appear to be used interchangeably. Examples include conducting a survey or opinion poll. In a cross sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. For example, we might find that the rate of breast cancer is the same across different ethnic groups.
The investigator may also estimate the prevalence of the outcome in those surveyed. The context of cross sectional research the cross sectional research is a research approach in which the researchers investigate the state of affairs in a population at a certain point in. Cross sectional studies cross sectional studies measure simultaneously the exposure and health outcome in a given population and in a given geographical area at a certain time. Cross sectional study a cross sectional study is an observational study in which exposure and disease are determined at the same point in time in a given population the temporal relationship between exposure and disease cannot be determined. The participants in this type of study are selected based on particular variables of interest.
Pdf this article is intended as an introductory crosssectionalstudy of works on social research writing. Research design a cross sectional correlation research design was used for this study where the caregivers compassion fatigue levels were assessed in relation to their sense of coherence scores. Crosssectional studies kate ann levin dental health services research unit, university of dundee, dundee, scotland, uk in this series, i previously gave an overview of the main types of study design and the techniques used to minimise biased results. Although cross sectional research does not involve conducting experiments, it is often used to understand outcomes in. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of cross sectional studies to consider. A crosssectional study involves looking at data from a population at one specific point in time.
Cross sectional studies are much cheaper to perform than other options that are available to researchers. Cross sectional studies university of south florida. With a longitudinal study you might start with an original. In medical research, social science and biology, a crosssectional study also known as a crosssectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in timethat is, crosssectional data in economics, crosssectional studies typically involve the use of crosssectional. Crosssectional studies are often used in developmental psychology, but this method is also utilized in many other areas including social science and.
Social phenomena have histories, which single crosssectional research studies cannot directly access. Descriptive and analytic studies cross sectional study measures. Jul 03, 2010 interpretation of data from a cross sectional study such as this one must keep in mind a number of considerations. Longitudinal and crosssectional studies sage research. Here, i describe crosssectional studies, their uses, advantages and. Cross sectional studies advantages often early study design in a line of investigation good for hypothesis generation relatively easy, quick and inexpensivedepends on question examine multiple exposures or outcomes estimate prevalence of disease and exposures. What she did was a crosssectional study, and the document she mailed out was a simple questionnaire. Crosssectional research is research which makes observations at only one period in time. Jul 09, 2017 longitudinal studies are studies in which data is collected at specific intervals over a long period of time in order to measure changes over time. Cross sectional studies are often used in developmental psychology, but this method is also utilized in many other areas including social science and. For example, the 2015 british social attitudes pdf survey found that 66 per cent of people thought that its everybodys duty to vote in a general election, down.
As a researcher, one can face the dilemma of choosing between many different types of research or studies designs, to determine which one will be the more suitable for the kind of topic we are investigating. The researcher starts with a general idea and uses research as. A cross sectional study is considered a snapshot of health as we collect data at one point in time. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Pdf crosssectional versus longitudinal survey research. Cross sectional studies are a type of descriptive epidemiologic study in which the exposure and disease status of the population are determined at a given point. A cross sectional study is the simplest variety of descriptive or observational epidemiology that can be conducted on representative samples of a population. In this kind of study, the subset of the population or the whole population is chosen and from the selected participants, data is gathered for the purpose of helping answer research questions of interest.
The disease and its possible determinants are all recorded at a given point in time. Longitudinal, in which scientists study the same individuals or society repeatedly over a specified period of time. Sample size for a cross sectional study was calculated using epi info software 19. In a crosssectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. A repeated cross sectional study selects a new group of photos of the fourth, eighth, and 12th graders every so often every two years for naep. A crosssectional study is a tool used by researchers to gather data consisting of multiple variables at a specific point in time. A crosssectional study collects data of both exposure and outcome at the same short period of time. Dental health services research unit, university of dundee, dundee, scotland, uk. Cross sectional study definition of cross sectional study. Cross sectional studies collect all data at a set point in time. It is actually a type of research design that focuses on explaining the aspects of your study in a detailed manner.
Cross sectional design is one of the most wellknown and commonly used study designs. Unlike hypothesis testing, both the null h 0 and alternative h a hypotheses must be fully considered when performing power analysis. A cross sectional study involves looking at data from a population at one specific point in time. This entry concentrates on household panels collected by surveys. That is because there is no followup required with this type of research. Research methods and analysis doctors for afghanistan. Crosssectional studies crosssectional studies measure simultaneously the exposure and health outcome in a given population and in a given geographical area at a certain time. However, comparing older and younger respondents in a single study is a very unreliable guide to social change. Crosssectional research is analogous to taking one still picture of the population or group being investigated. Pdf this article is intended as an introductory crosssectionalstudy of works on.
A crosssectional study contributions in sociology sooryamoorthy, r. Cohort studies are used to study incidence, causes, and prognosis. In medical research, social science and biology, a crosssectional study is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative. Learn cross sectional studies with free interactive flashcards. The open education sociology dictionary oesd is part of the open access and open education movement and seeks to create an entry level resource for sociology students, educators, and the curious. Cross sectional studies can be done across all industries, but. Crosssectional survey design sage research methods. A crosssectional survey collects data to make inferences about a population of interest universe at one point in time.
We could however compare two or more independent crosssectional studies, from different times and samples, if available. This study type is also known as cross sectional analysis, transverse study, or prevalence study. Observational study crosssectionaldata represent a point in time cohortsubjects selected according to exposure casecontrolsubjects selected according to outcome. Pdf strengths and weaknesses of case control and cross. The longitudinal study uses time as the main variable, and tries to make an in depth study of how a small sample changes and fluctuates over time a cross sectional study, on the other hand, takes a snapshot of a population at a certain time, allowing conclusions about phenomena across a wide population to be drawn an example of a crosssectional study would be a medical study looking at.
Unlike in casecontrol studies participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion. This is usually done with cohorts, so that researchers can examine how people of different ages perform, behave, or respond to a particular function. Explanatory research is conducted for a problem that was not well researched before, demands priorities, generates operational definitions and provides a betterresearched model. A cross sectional study is analogous to selecting a bunch of classroom photos at random from all of the fourth, eighth, and 12th grade classes in a single year. Types of cross sectional study descriptive a cross sectional study may be purely descriptive and used to assess the frequency and distribution of a particular disease in a defined population. Longitudinal studies are studies in which data is collected at specific intervals over a long period of time in order to measure changes over time. The definition and use of a crosssectional study verywell mind. Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases or other healthrelated states and other factors of. Longitudinal researchers examine features of people or other units at more than one point in time. Lecture slides lecture slides from msc social science research methods module at cardiff university click here. Often described as a snapshot of a population in a certain point in time. A cross sectional study is one type of study in which people of different ages are examined at the same times.1246 304 483 1416 441 1000 548 1182 1266 1370 1383 719 32 1183 1248 1 922 1301 529 129 276 1509 1516 551 924 15 1142 1393 899 948 153 363 876 656 568 299 1397 1378 687 1484 922 124